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Synonyms of Ketamine Crystal Powder
(+/-)-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)-cyclohexanone; Ketalar®, Ketaject®, Ketaset®, Vetalar®; K, Special K, Vitamin K, Lady K, Jet, Super Acid, Bump, Special LA Coke, KitKat, Cat Valium. Buy Ketamine Crystal Powder Online Without Prescription.
Source of Ketamine Crystal Powder
Available by prescription only, and is commercially available as a veterinary anesthetic. It is difficult to synthesize clandestinely and is usually stolen from veterinarian offices or diverted from legitimate pharmaceutical sources in liquid form. Ketamine is currently a schedule III controlled substance in the US.
Dissociative anesthetic, hallucinogen, psychotomimetic.
Medical and Recreational Uses of Ketamine Crystal Powder
Primarily used in veterinary applications as a tranquilizer. Also used as an anesthetic induction agent for diagnostic and surgical procedures in humans, prior to the administration of general anesthetics. Occasionally used as a short-acting general anesthetic for children and elderly patients. Recreationally used as a psychedelic and for its dissociative effects.
Potency, Purity and Dose
Ketamine is available as a racemic mixture with the S-(+)- isomer being more potent than the R-(-)- isomer. Commercially supplied as the hydrochloride salt in 0.5 mg/mL and 5 mg/mL ketamine base equivalents. Recreational doses are highly variable. Moreover Common doses are 25-50 mg intramuscularly, 30-75 mg snorting, and 75-300 mg oral. Snorting a small line (“bump”, 30-50 mg) usually results in a dreamy effect. “K-hole” can be obtained following a dose of 60-125 mg intramuscularly, or by snorting 100-250 mg. Buy Ketamine Crystal Powder Online Without Prescription.
Route of Administration
Injected, snorted, orally ingested, and rectally administered. Similar to phencyclidine (PCP), ketamine can be added to tobacco or marijuana cigarettes and smoked.
Also Involves analgesia, anesthetic and sympathomimetic effects that are mediated by different sites of action. Non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonism is associated with the analgesic effects; opiate receptors may contribute to analgesia and dysphoric reactions; and sympathomimetic properties may result from enhanced central and peripheral monoaminergic transmission. Ketamine blocks dopamine uptake and therefore elevates synaptic dopamine levels. Inhibition of central and peripheral cholinergic transmission could contribute to induction of the anesthetic state and hallucinations. Ketamine is structurally similar to PCP, but 10-50 times less potent in blocking NMDA effects.
Bioavailability following an intramuscular dose is 93%, intranasal dose 25-50%, and oral dose 20±7%. Also Ketamine is rapidly distributed into brain and other highly perfused tissues, and is 12% bound in plasma. The plasma half-life is
2.3 ± 0.5 hours. Oral administration produces lower peak concentrations of ketamine, but increased amounts of the metabolites norketamine and dehydronorketamine. Also Ketamine and its metabolites undergo hydroxylation and conjugation. Norketamine produces effects similar to those of ketamine. There are no significant differences between the pharmacokinetic properties of the S-(+) and R-(-)-isomers.
Molecular Interaction / Receptor Chemistry
Cytochrome P450 3A4 is the principal enzyme responsible for ketamine N-demethylation to norketamine, with minor contributions from CYP2B6 and CYP2C9 isoforms . Potential inhibitors of these isoenzymes could decrease the rate of ketamine elimination if administered concurrently, while potential inducers could increase the rate of elimination.
Interpretation of Blood Concentrations
There is no direct correlation between ketamine concentrations and behavior. Drowsiness, perceptual distortions and intoxication may be dose related in a concentration range of 50 to 200 ng/mL, and analgesia begins at plasma concentrations of about 100 ng/mL. During anesthesia, blood ketamine concentrations of 2000-3000 ng/mL are used, and patients may begin to awake from a surgical procedure when concentrations have been naturally reduced to 500-1000 ng/mL.
Interpretation of Urine Test Results
Urinary excretion of unchanged drug is 4±3%, and ketamine use can be detected in urine for about 3 days. Concentration ranges for ketamine in urine have been reported as low as 10 ng/mL and up to 25,000 ng/mL.
Effects of Ketamine Crystal Powder
Where as Users have likened the physical effects of ketamine to those of PCP, and the visual effects to LSD.
Also Decreased awareness of general environment, sedation, dream-like state, vivid dreams, feelings of invulnerability, increased distractibility, disorientation, and subjects are generally uncommunicative. Moreover Intense hallucinations, impaired thought processes, out-of-body experiences, and changes in perception about body, surroundings, time and sounds.
In addition Physiological: Anesthesia, cataplexy, immobility, tachycardia, increased blood pressure, nystagmus, hypersalivation, increased urinary output, profound insensitivity to pain, amnesia, slurred speech, and lack of coordination.
Side Effect Profile
Therefore High incidence of adverse effects, including anxiety, chest pain, palpitations, agitation, rhabdomyolysis, flashbacks, delirium, dystonia, psychosis, schizophenic-like symptoms, dizziness, vomiting, seizures, and paranoia.
Duration of Effects
Also Onset of effects is within seconds if smoked, 1-5 minutes if injected, 5-10 minutes if snorted and 15-20 minutes if orally administered. Effects generally last 30-45 minutes if injected, 45-60 minutes if snorted, and 1-2 hours following oral ingestion. Some subjects may experience dreams 24 hours later. Buy Ketamine Crystal Powder Online Without Prescription.
Tolerance, Dependence and Withdrawal Effects
Little evidence of a physiological withdrawal syndrome unless abrupt discontinuation in chronic users.
Moreover Midazolam attenuates altered perception and thought processes. Lorazepam may decrease ketamine-associated emotional distress but does not decrease cognitive or behavioral effects of ketamine. Also Acute administration of diazepam increases the half-life of ketamine. Haloperidol may decrease impairment by ketamine in executive control functions, but does not affect psychosis, perceptual changes, negative schizophrenic-like symptoms, or euphoria. Alfentanil is additive to ketamine in decreasing pain and increasing cognitive impairment. Physostigmine and 4-aminopyridine can antagonize some pharmacodynamic effects of ketamine. Moreover Buy Ketamine Crystal Powder Online Without Prescription.
Performance Effects of Ketamine Crystal Powder
In addition Broad spectrum of cognitive impairments and marked dissociative effects. Increased distractibility and intensely visual or polysensual hallucinations. Impairment of immediate and delayed recall, and verbal declarative memory. Impaired language function, failure to form and use memory traces of task relevant information. Overall decreased awareness, increased reaction time, distorted perceptions of space, non-responsiveness, and blurred vision. The S-(+) isomer impairs psychomotor function 3-5 times more than the R-(-) isomer. Buy Ketamine Crystal Powder Online Without Prescription.
Horizontal gaze nystagmus present; vertical gaze nystagmus present; lack of convergence present; pupil size normal; reaction to light normal; pulse rate elevated; blood pressure elevated; body temperature elevated. Therefore characteristic indicators may include rigid muscles, cyclic behavior, and lack of response to painful stimuli.
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